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Current Location: Homepage » Chinese Culture » The Chinese Culture » Main Body

Stone Lion 石獅

Time:2018-02-24Source:Internet
Profile:Stone Lion 石獅
(單詞翻譯:雙擊或拖選)
The earliest stone lion (shí shī 石獅) was discovered in a Eastern Han Dynasty tomb in Ya'an (yǎ ān 雅安), Sichuan Province (sì chuān shěng 四川省). During the Ming Dynasty (míng cháo 明朝) stone lions were placed in front of palaces, government buildings, temples and even some rich family mansions to display power. Later, stone lion designs were carved as decoration on important architectural features such as door lintels and eaves. Beijing now has many stone lions made during the Ming and Qing (qīng 清) dynasties. These lions do not seem powerful and wild, but rather are kindly and gentle.

Stone Lion in Forbidden CityThe lion was regarded as the king in the animal world so its imagines represented power and prestige. The first lion was presented to China during the Eastern Han Dynasty (dōng hàn 東漢) by a king from the Western Regions (xī yù 西域).

In the Buddhist faith, the lion is considered a divine animal of nobleness and dignity, which can protect the truth and keep off evils. In Chinese folk tales, the lion has become a symbol of bravery, power and good luck. For this reason the stone lions are popular among the people and are commonly seen in front of the gates of ordinary families’ homes. The male lion is on the left with his right paw resting on a ball, and the female on the right with her left paw fondling a cub. The ball played by the male lion symbolized the Stone Lionunity of the empire, and the cub with the female thriving offspring.

It was also popular to decorate bridges with sculpted-stone lions for the same reason. The best known of this is the Lugouqiao Bridge (also as Marco Polo Bridge, lú gōu qiáo 盧溝橋), built from 1189 to 1192. The stone lions on the posts of the bridge are most famous. It is said there are 485 lions in all, but there may be 498 or 501. A famous proverb says "the lions on the Lugouqiao are uncountable."

石獅
    
      石獅子就是用石頭雕刻出來的獅子,是在中國傳統建筑中經常使用的一種裝飾物。在中國的宮殿,寺廟,佛塔,橋梁,府邸,園林,陵墓,以及印鈕上都會看到它。在漫長的歷史年代中,這些石獅子陪伴著滄桑巨變,目睹著朝代的興衰更替,已成為中國古建筑中不可缺少的一種裝飾物。

Stone Lion on Lugouqiao Bridge      從宋清兩代搜集的周代銅器的精繪印本中,已有獅子的立體形象。據說獅子是從西域傳來的。相傳東漢年間,獅子被作為禮物送給中國的皇帝。隨著佛教的傳入中國,被佛教推崇的獅子在人們心目中成了高貴尊嚴的靈獸,中國很快從印度等地學到了石獅子的雕刻藝術,并且出現陳列墓前的現象。如四川雅安縣高頤墓前的石獅子,就是中國現存最古老的石獅子,是東漢時期的遺物。所以獅子在中國更多地是作為一種神話中的動物出現的,和麒麟一起成為中國的Stone Lion靈獸。唐代高僧慧琳說:“狻猊即獅子也,出西域。”到唐代時,石獅子雕刻藝術達到了頂峰。由于采用傳神的創作方法,石獅子完全中國化了。中國的雕刻藝術大師將石獅子雕刻得異常壯麗,而且逼真:頭披卷毛,張嘴揚頸,四爪強勁有力,神態盛氣凌人……

      明代后,石獅子雕刻藝術不僅比唐代更高,而且人們生活中使用的范圍也更加廣泛。宮殿、府第、陵寢、甚至一般市民住宅,都用石獅子守門;在門楣檐角、石欄桿等建筑上也雕上石獅作為裝飾。如聞名中外的盧溝橋,其兩邊140個柱頭上,都雕刻著玲瓏活潑的石獅子。姿態多樣,神情豐富,大小不一,雕刻得活靈活現。清代,獅子的雕刻已基本定型,《揚州畫舫錄》中規定:“獅子分頭、臉、身、腿、牙、胯、繡帶、鈴鐺、旋螺紋、滾鑿繡珠、出鑿崽子。”石獅子通常以須彌座為基座,基座上有錦鋪。獅子的造型各異,在中國又經過了美化修飾,基本的形態都是滿頭卷發,威武雄壯。獅子的造型在不同的朝代有不同的特征:漢唐時通常強悍威猛;元朝時身軀瘦長有力;明清時較為溫順。

The face of a stone lion      獅子在民間有辟邪的作用,常用來守門。看門的石獅子的擺放是有規矩的。一般來說,都是一雄一雌,成雙成對的,而且一般都是左雄右雌,符合中國傳統男左女右的陰陽哲學。放在門口左側的雄獅一般都雕成右前爪玩弄繡球或者兩前爪之間方一個繡球;門口右側雌獅則雕成左前爪撫摸幼獅或者兩前爪之間臥一幼獅。獅子又是獸中之王,有顯示尊貴和威嚴的作用,按照傳統習俗,成對的獅子是左雄右雌,還可以從獅子所踩之物來辨別,蹄下為球,象征統一寰宇和無上權利,必為雄獅。蹄下踩Stone Lion著幼獅,象征子孫綿延,是雌獅。如果獅子所蹲之石刻著鳳凰和牡丹,鳥中之王,花中之王,就稱“三王之獅”。

      比較有名的獅子包括天安門前的獅子,中山公園社稷壇門外的獅子,北京大學門前的獅子,滄州鐵獅和盧溝橋望柱上的四百多只獅子,俗話說“盧溝橋的石獅子——數不清”。北京天安門金水橋前后,各有一對點綴性的大石獅子,左雄右雌,雕刻得極為精美。右側石獅子的腹部有一塊傷痕。關于這道傷痕有兩個傳說:一是說,明代時的將領李國禎被著名的農民起義軍領袖李自成追擊,躲藏在石獅子的后面,李自成發現了,舉劍狠狠刺去,結果使石獅子受到誤傷;另一說,八國聯軍入侵北京,石獅子被侵略軍所破壞。
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